If there is a logic to the arguments of politicians, I don’t know what it is.Â A vote for a politician involves a complex web of commitments whose primary objective is action, not belief.Â So when politiciansÂ violate the rules of argumentative propriety, it’s hard to complain too much.Â You know their ads are going to go ad hominem, too often egregriously so, when they’re not distorting the record, or otherwise strawmanning, hollow manning, or weak manning their opponents.
Columnists in the newspaper, on the other hand, playÂ a different kind of game.Â Well some of them do.Â They advance reasons for believing proposition x or proposition y.Â We can, I think, hold them to a higher standard.
So for instance, today GeorgeÂ WillÂ Â argues that Democrats are desperate in the face of the march of obviously moderate, reasonable, non masterbatingÂ Tea Party candidates.Â His argument is bad.Â Here’s how it goes:
P1.Â TheÂ Democrats have accomplished nothing that people like;
P2.Â They haveÂ plans for more stuff people don’t like;
C.Â Therefore they now wronglyÂ characterize grass roots, very reasonable, centrist small-governmentÂ people as “extremists.”
Just for the record, I thinkÂ P1Â is veryÂ questionable, and a partisan operator such asÂ Will oughtÂ to offer better evidence (heÂ doesn’tÂ offer any).Â P2Â is weak for the same reason.Â Now if those premises were true, which they aren’t, maybe that conclusion would follow.Â But the conclusion is false anyway–because the candidates in question stand far from the center of American politics.Â That is not to say they’re wrong.Â It’s just to say they are not unfairly criticized as on an extreme.Â Time to take that word back extremists.Â Embrace it.
Now Will moves to a more serious objective: a logical critique of Democrats in general:
Democrats, unable to run on their policies, will try to demonize the opponents with Tea Party support as unstable extremists with personality disorders. They have ridden this hobby horse before.
As I argued above, this is a vacuous critique.Â But it’s hilarious, because it’s an attempt at logic criticism–and Will sucks at this.Â Here’s how is argument goes for that conclusion:
In response to a questionnaire from a magazine, 1,189 psychiatrists, none of whom had ever met Goldwater, declared him unfit for office — “emotionally unstable,” “immature,” “cowardly,” “grossly psychotic,” “paranoid,” “chronic schizophrenic” and “dangerous lunatic” were some judgments from the psychiatrists who believed that extremism in pursuit of Goldwater was no vice. Shortly before the election, Columbia University historian Richard Hofstadter published in Harper’s an essay (later expanded into a book with the same title), “The Paranoid Style in American Politics,” that encouraged the idea that Goldwater’s kind of conservatism was a mental disorder.
On the eve of the convention that nominated Goldwater, Daniel Schorr of CBS, “reporting” from Germany, said: “It looks as though Sen. Goldwater, if nominated, will be starting his campaign here in Bavaria, center of Germany’s right wing” and “Hitler’s one-time stomping ground.”
Goldwater, said Schorr, would be vacationing near Hitler’s villa at Berchtesgaden. Schorr further noted that Goldwater had given an interview to Der Spiegel “appealing to right-wing elements in Germany” and had agreed to speak to a gathering of “right-wing Germans.” So, “there are signs that the American and German right wings are joining up.”
But as Andrew Ferguson of the Weekly Standard has reported, although Goldwater had spoken vaguely about a European vacation (he did not take one), he had not mentioned Germany, and there were no plans to address any German group. Der Spiegel had reprinted an interview that had appeared elsewhere.
The relevance of this for 2010? There is precedent for the mainstream media being megaphones for Democratic-manufactured hysteria.
Nonsense.Â Let’s reconstruct this.
P1.Â A bunch of psychiatristsÂ thought Barry Goldwater was crazy in 1964.
P2. Richard Hofttadter wrote the “Paranoid Style in American Politics”
P3.Â A reporter for CBS (recently deceased) is alleged to have slandered Goldwater.
C.Â Therefore, the DemocratsÂ “haveÂ ridden this hobby horse before.”
Gee, he doesn’t even really try here.Â It just doesn’t follow that the “Democrats” have done any of this–various unrelated people have.Â But anyway, Charles Krauthammer, a non anonymous psychiatrist who shares the Post’s op-ed page with George Will, said the following of candidate Al Gore:
KRAUTHAMMER: Crying for help, you know. (LAUGHTER) Iâ€™m a psychiatrist. I donâ€™t usually practice on camera. But this is the edge of looniness, this idea that thereâ€™s a vast conspiracy, it sits in a building, it emanates, it has these tentacles, is really at the edge. He could use a little help.
He does that all of the time and he sits in the cubicle next to Will at the Post.Â And he’s not a Democrat.
American politics has often been an arena for angry minds. In recent years we have seen angry minds at work mainly among extreme right-wingers, who have now demonstrated in the Goldwater movement how much political leverage can be got out of the animosities and passions of a small minority. But behind this I believe there is a style of mind that is far from new and that is not necessarily right-wind. I call it the paranoid style simply because no other word adequately evokes the sense of heated exaggeration, suspiciousness, and conspiratorial fantasy that I have in mind. In using the expression â€œparanoid styleâ€ I am not speaking in a clinical sense, but borrowing a clinical term for other purposes. I have neither the competence nor the desire to classify any figures of the past or present as certifiable lunatics., In fact, the idea of the paranoid style as a force in politics would have little contemporary relevance or historical value if it were applied only to men with profoundly disturbed minds. It is the use of paranoid modes of expression by more or less normal people that makes the phenomenon significant.